PmWiki supports internationalization (internationalisation) of web pages, allowing accented characters to appear in page names and almost complete customization of PmWiki’s prompts. Most customization is provided via the XL Page?() function in PmWiki, which loads a set of translation variables from a wiki page (typically named XL Page?, but it can be named anything you wish).
The rest of this page is devoted to the installation, configuration and usage of other language(s) support. If you are looking for tools and help to localize PmWiki in your language, or how you can improve the existing translations, start on pmwiki.org with the page Localization - The translation Portal.
Loading Translation Pages
Pages for many other languages have already been created and maintained at the pmichaud.com site. You can download an archive of these translations from http://www.pmwiki.org/pub/pmwiki/i18n/ . Simply download the appropriate language archive(s), and unpack the archive(s) into the directory containing your pmwiki.php installation. Each archive contains a number of page files that are placed in your wikilib.d/ directory, and some special scripts for translations that use a character set other than iso-8859–1 (PmWiki’s default). You can also use UTF-8 charset.
Once the translation pages are installed, you enable a language by adding a call to XLPage() in your config.php file. For example, to select French language prompts, one would specify
which says to load the translations for French (‘fr’) from the page PmWikiFr.XLPage?. It’s perfectly okay to load multiple pages; so if you want to create your own local translations without changing the ones you got from an i18n archive, just create another page (see below) and load it on top. Be sure that you load first the page with your local changes:
XLPage('fr','PmWikiFr.XLPageLocal'); # my local translations XLPage('fr','PmWikiFr.XLPage'); # from i18n.tgz
If your intention is to offer multiple languages on your site, and use Wiki Groups as language selectors, you may want to place this code in local customizations files (see Group Customizations). For example, if your site is published in French and English, and the French pages are in a group called Fr, you could create a file named Fr.php in the local/ directory which contains:
<?php if (!defined('PmWiki')) exit(); ##change to French language XLPage('fr','PmWikiFr.XLPage');
You may wish to create a page called Pmwiki Fr?.php with the same content to access the French documentation in the Pmwiki Fr? group. En.php is not necessary in this case since English is the default language.
$xlpage = FmtPageName('$Group.XLPage', $pagename); if (PageExists($xlpage)) XLPage($xlpage, $xlpage);
See also Cookbook:MultiLanguage
where “phrase” is an internationalized phrase (denoted by
If you create new versions of PmWiki pages in other languages, please consider adding them to the main PmWiki site so that they can be made available to others in the i18n archives!
The term “i18n” is commonly used as an abbreviation for the English word “internationalization”. The abbreviation is derived from the fact that there are 18 letters between the “i” and the final “n” and few people want to type them all out.
Enabling “Special” Characters in Wiki Links?
For German umlauts, you’d need for example:
Note that the locale identifier depends on the operation system and perhaps on the specific installation.
Q If my wiki is internationalized by config.php, how do I revert a specific group to English?
Q If my wiki is in English and I want just one page, or group, in Spanish do I say
Yes, that is usually the best method. If you were doing this with many scattered pages, or with several languages, you might find it easier to maintain if you load the translations all in config.php like this:
XL Page?(‘es’,’PmWiki Es.XL Page?’); XL Page?(‘fr’,’PmWiki Fr.XL Page?’); XL Page?(‘ru’,’PmWiki Ru.XL Page?’);
Then in each group or page configuration file, you’d just use
Q What does the first parameter of this function stand for? How can it be used?
For example, suppose I want to have translations for both normal French and “Canadian” French. Rather than maintain two entirely separate sets of pages, I could do:
XL Page?(‘fr’, ‘PmWiki Fr.XL Page?’); XL Page?(‘fr-ca’, ‘PmWiki Fr Ca.XL Page?’);
PmWiki Fr.XL Page? would contain all of the standard French translations, while PmWiki Fr CA.XL Page? would only need to contain “Canada-specific” translations — i.e., those that are different from the ones in the French page.
The first parameter distinguishes the two sets of translations.
In addition, a config.php script can use the
Q How can I use PHP to add a translation for an individual string on the fly?
Use the XLSDV() function to provide a translation for a specific (English) string. For instance, with this in config.php
XLSDV(‘nl’, array(‘my English expression’=>’mijn Nederlandse uitdrukking’));
any instance of the variable expression
But beware: XL Page?() uses XLSDV() internally for its translation pairs, too, and only the first definition is accepted! Thus, if the Dutch XL Page? already contains a translation for your string like
‘my English expression’ => ‘bla bla’,
and you want to override that, you need to use your XLSDV(‘nl’,…) before calling the correspondent XL Page?(‘nl’,…). Otherwise, by using XLSDV() after XL Page?() - e.g. within a recipe that is included later in config.php - your translation will only work as long nobody defines ‘my English expression’ in that XL Page?.